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In der JUNGEN UNION aktiv sein heißt: die eigene Zukunft selbst in die Hand zu nehmen, weil wir lieber handeln als behandelt werden, weil es Spaß macht, mit. Diese Statistik zeigt die größten Städte in Deutschland Am Ende des Jahres waren Berlin, Hamburg und München die größten Städte Deutschlands. Elektro-Mobilität An Deutschlands Ladesäulen herrschen Chaos und Wucher. Stand: Uhr | Lesedauer: 6 Minuten. Birger Nicolai. Von Birger Nicolai. Für Menschen, die gerne Kloster und Schlösser besichtigen, auf jeden Fall! Mehr als 61 Mio. Auch die Machtposition eines vereinigten Deutschlands, das mit der Sowjetunion zusammenarbeiten könnte wie schon während der Weimarer Republik im Vertrag von Rapallo von und dann in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus im Hitler-Stalin-Pakt von geschehen und somit ein Druckmittel gegen die Staaten des Westens in der Hand hätte, führte zu der Entscheidung, die Teilung aktiv zu betreiben. Auf diese Befürchtungen hin wurde Deutschland geteilt. Die Länder haben sich eigene Verfassungen gegeben; ihnen kommt grundsätzlich Staatsqualität zu, sie sind jedoch beschränkte Völkerrechtssubjekte, die nur mit Einwilligung der Bundesregierung eigene Verträge mit anderen Staaten eingehen dürfen Art. Bürger, die ihre politische Protesthaltung nicht im Untergrund hochhalten oder theoretisch vertiefen wollten, widmeten sich verstärkt dem Privatleben in Haus und Familie. Seit ist der Euro als Zahlungsmittel eingeführt und hat in der Bundesrepublik die Deutsche Mark abgelöst. Die Sendergruppe wirbt auf ihren Kanälen kräftig für die eigenen Firmen. Infolge der Fischer-Kontroverse kam es seit den er Jahren zu der Auffassung, dass zwar eine längerfristige Planung des Krieges seitens Deutschlands nicht nachweisbar, die unverantwortliche Politik der deutschen Regierung in der Julikrise aber ausschlaggebend für die Auslösung des Weltkriegs gewesen sei. Das Dossier beinhaltet neben Bestands- und Absatzzahlen sowie führenden Unternehmen von Industrierobotern auch Branchenumsätze zu Robotik und Automation. Region Deutschland Erhebungszeitraum Archived from the original on 13 March In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europewhich established a republic in Franceintellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the German states. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Archived from the original on 8 January Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on 6 Beste Spielothek in Mannersdorf an der Rabnitz finden He started work there when a Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population [] are Buddhism withadherents, Judaism withadherents, and Hinduism with someadherents. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany. Air Broker Fußball ergebnisse 1 liga heute International.

The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag.

The chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.

Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.

The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.

In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.

The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.

The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.

Germany has a low murder rate with 0. Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.

Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary.

As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.

Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains relations with more than countries. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.

The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In , Chancellor Gerhard Schröder 's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.

As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.

In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.

But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.

As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.

Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.

In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption, [] and a high level of innovation.

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.

Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [] and is the fourth largest by production.

Of the world's largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in , the Fortune Global , 28 are headquartered in Germany.

Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model. More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.

The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.

Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.

Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant.

Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy. Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.

Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.

Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication. The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance.

Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [] with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.

Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.

Germany's most-visited landmarks include e. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.

With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.

The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.

Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad. After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.

The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler , followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.

In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.

As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions.

Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.

According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population [] are Buddhism with , adherents, Judaism with , adherents, and Hinduism with some , adherents.

All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.

Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s, [] Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.

Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.

Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.

During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.

German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture.

German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.

Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.

German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.

Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.

After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.

Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.

German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer. The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.

With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.

For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe.

Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.

History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.

German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.

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Archived from the original on 10 March Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Retrieved 7 April Archived from the original on 5 July For further discussion see Haydn and folk music.

Haydn later used the hymn as the basis for the second movement poco adagio cantabile of his Opus 76 No. However, hopes for the Enlightenment , human rights and republican government after Napoleon 's defeat in were dashed when the Congress of Vienna reinstated many small German principalities.

In addition, with the Carlsbad Decrees of , Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich and his secret police enforced censorship, mainly in universities, to keep a watch on the activities of teachers and students, whom he held responsible for the spread of radical liberalist ideas.

Since reactionaries among the monarchs were the main adversaries, demands for freedom of the press and other liberal rights were most often uttered in connection with the demand for a united Germany, even though many revolutionaries-to-be had different opinions about whether a republic or a constitutional monarchy would be the best solution for Germany.

The German Confederation Deutscher Bund — was a loose federation of 35 monarchical states and four republican free cities, with a Federal Assembly in Frankfurt.

They began to remove internal customs barriers during the Industrial Revolution , and the German Customs Union Zollverein was formed among the majority of the states in In Hoffmann wrote a song about the Zollverein , also to Haydn's melody, in which he praised the free trade of German goods which brought Germans and Germany closer.

For a short period in the late s, Germany was economically united with the borders described in the anthem, and a democratic constitution was being drafted, and with the black-red-gold flag representing it.

However, after the two largest German monarchies, Prussia and Austria, put an end to this liberal movement toward national unification.

August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the text in on holiday on the North Sea island of Heligoland , then a possession of the United Kingdom now part of Germany [5].

Hoffmann von Fallersleben intended " Das Lied der Deutschen " to be sung to Haydn's tune, as the first publication of the poem included the music.

The first line, " Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, über alles in der Welt " usually translated into English as "Germany, Germany above all else, above all else in the world" , was an appeal to the various German monarchs to give the creation of a united Germany a higher priority than the independence of their small states.

In the third stanza, with a call for " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " unity and justice and freedom , Hoffmann expressed his desire for a united and free Germany where the rule of law , not monarchical arbitrariness, would prevail.

In the era after the Congress of Vienna , influenced by Metternich and his secret police , Hoffmann's text had a distinctly revolutionary and at the same time liberal connotation, since the appeal for a united Germany was most often made in connection with demands for freedom of the press and other civil rights.

Its implication that loyalty to a larger Germany should replace loyalty to one's local sovereign was then a revolutionary idea.

Germany, Germany above all, Above all in the world, When, for protection and defense, It always stands brotherly together.

German women , German loyalty, German wine and German song Shall retain in the world Their old beautiful chime And inspire us to noble deeds During all of our life.

Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit Für das deutsche Vaterland! Danach lasst uns alle streben Brüderlich mit Herz und Hand!

Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland! Towards these let us all strive Brotherly with heart and hand! Unity and justice and freedom Are the foundation of happiness;: After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in , " Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser " became the official anthem of the emperor of the Austrian Empire.

After the death of Francis II new lyrics were composed in , Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze , that mentioned the Emperor, but not by name.

With those new lyrics, the song continued to be the anthem of Imperial Austria and later of Austria-Hungary.

Austrian monarchists continued to use this anthem after in the hope of restoring the monarchy. The adoption of the Austrian anthem's melody by Germany in was not opposed by Austria.

During the time of the German Empire it became one of the most widely known patriotic songs. The song became very popular after the Battle of Langemarck during World War I , when, supposedly, several German regiments, consisting mostly of students no older than 20, attacked the British lines on the Western front singing the song, suffering heavy casualties.

They are buried in the Langemark German war cemetery in Belgium. The official report of the army embellished the event as one of young German soldiers heroically sacrificing their lives for the Fatherland.

In reality the untrained troops were sent out to attack the British trenches and were mown down by machine guns and rifle fire.

This report, also known as the "Langemarck Myth", was printed on the first page in newspapers all over Germany.

It is doubtful whether the soldiers would have sung the song in the first place: Nonetheless, the story was widely repeated.

The melody used by the "Deutschlandlied" was still in use as the anthem of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until its demise in In the black, red and gold tricolour, the colours of the 19th century liberal revolutionaries advocated by the political left and centre, was adopted rather than the previous black, white and red of Imperial Germany.

Thus, in a political trade-off, the conservative right was granted a nationalistic anthem — though Ebert advocated using only the anthem's third stanza which was done after World War II.

In this way, the first verse of the song became closely identified with the Nazi regime. After its founding in , West Germany did not have a national anthem for official events for some years, despite the growing need for the purpose of diplomatic procedures.

In lieu of an official national anthem, popular German songs such as the Trizonesien-Song , a carnival song mocking the occupying Allied powers, were used at some sporting events.

Different musical compositions were discussed or used, such as the fourth movement of Ludwig van Beethoven 's Ninth Symphony , which is a musical setting of Friedrich Schiller 's poem "An die Freude" " Ode to Joy ".

Though the black, red and gold colours of the national flag had been incorporated into Article 22 of the West German constitution , a national anthem was not specified.

On 29 April , Chancellor Konrad Adenauer asked President Theodor Heuss in a letter to accept " Das Lied der Deutschen " as the national anthem, with only the third stanza being sung on official occasions.

President Heuss agreed to this on 2 May This exchange of letters was published in the Bulletin of the Federal Government.

Since it was viewed as the traditional right of the President as head of state to set the symbols of the state, the " Deutschlandlied " thus became the national anthem.

As the lyrics of this anthem called for "Germany, united Fatherland", they were no longer officially used, from about , [12] after the DDR abandoned its goal of uniting Germany under communism.

With slight adaptations, the lyrics of " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " can be sung to the melody of the " Deutschlandlied " and vice versa.

In the s and 80s, efforts were made by conservatives in Germany to reclaim all three stanzas for the anthem. On 7 March , months before reunification , the Federal Constitutional Court declared only the third stanza of Hoffmann's poem to be legally protected as a national anthem under German penitential law; Section 90a of the Criminal Code Strafgesetzbuch makes defamation of the national anthem a crime — but does not specify what the national anthem is.

In November , President Richard von Weizsäcker and Chancellor Helmut Kohl agreed in an exchange of letters to declare the third stanza alone to be the national anthem of the reunified republic.

The opening line of the third stanza, " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" , is widely considered to be the national motto of Germany, although it was never officially proclaimed as such.

The first verse, which is no longer part of the national anthem and is not sung on official occasions, names three rivers and one strait — the Meuse Maas in German , Adige Etsch and Neman Memel Rivers and the Little Belt strait — as the boundaries of the German Sprachbund.

As the song was written before German unification, there was never an intention to deliniate borders of Germany as a nation-state.

Nevertheless, these geographical references have been variously criticized as irredentist or misleading. The Belt strait and the Neman later became actual boundaries of Germany the Belt until , the Neman until , whereas the Meuse and Adige were not parts of the German Reich as of Today, no part of any of the four places mentioned in the " Deutschlandlied " lies in Germany.

In an ethnic sense, none of these places formed a distinct ethnic border. The Duchy of Schleswig to which the Belt refers was inhabited by both Germans and Danes, with the Danes forming a clear majority near the strait.

Around the Adige there was a mix of German, Venetian and Gallo-Italian speakers, and the area around the Neman was not homogeneously German, but also accommodated Lithuanians.

The Meuse if taken as referencing the Duchy of Limburg , nominally part of the German Confederation for 28 years due to the political consequences of the Belgian Revolution , was ethnically Dutch with few Germans.

Nevertheless, such nationalistic rhetoric was relatively common in 19th-century public discourse.

Despite the text and tune of the song being quite peaceful compared to some other national anthems, the song has frequently been criticised for its generally nationalistic tone, the immodest geographic definition of Germany given in the first stanza, and the alleged male-chauvinistic attitude in the second stanza.

German grammar distinguishes between über alles , i. German president Theodor Heuss , upon request from chancellor Konrad Adenauer , declared the Lied der Deutschen the national anthem of the German Federal Republic in May , along with the provision that only the third verse was to be sung at official occasions.

As a result, the Lied implicitly in its entirety was declared the national anthem, with the provision that the third verse would have precedence.

In , German pop singer Heino produced a record of the song, including all three verses, for use in primary schools in Baden-Württemberg.

The inclusion of the first two verses was met with criticism at the time. The first two verses are therefore no longer part of the national anthem, and the performance of the first verse in some cases has been portrayed as controversial.

Deutschland s -

Der Staat beteiligt sich als Leistungserbringer nur nachrangig mit Gesundheitsämtern, kommunalen Krankenhäusern und Hochschulkliniken. Zwischenzeitlich hatte Hitler der Sowjetunion den Krieg erklärt Russlandfeldzug — Insbesondere für den Güterverkehr stellt es ein wichtiges Transitland dar. Januar die Zeit des Nationalsozialismus. Dabei kam es in verbesserter Finanzlage unter anderem zum Infrastrukturausbau, zu Wohnungsbauprogrammen und zur Einführung der Arbeitslosenversicherung. Dafür intervenierte die amerikanische Besatzungsmacht gegen eine in der Verfassung des Landes Hessen vorgesehene Option zur Sozialisierung hauptsächlich von Grundstoffindustrien.

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Henry Ashby Turner Patrick J. Berentsen …See All Contributors. Nov 7, See Article History. Page 1 of Learn More in these related Britannica articles: In Russia the Orthodox church continued to support a social order founded upon the monarchy, and even the monarch carried out a leading function within the church as protector.

On the one hand, Nazi ideology allowed no public role for the church and its teaching. On the other hand, Hitler was concerned not to trigger an outright confrontation with the church.

The concordat concluded in between Germany and…. Efforts were undertaken in Germany and central Europe as well. Nikolaus Ludwig, Graf count ….

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The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.

Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e. Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century.

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.

Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world. German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film.

The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.

After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.

Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.

German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.

For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe. Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm.

East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.

German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.

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